Much later, Caleb became one of the leaders of Israel after the death of Joshua. Launched Shavuot 5773 / 2013 | Copyright © Project TABS, All Rights Reserved. Let us look at each statement in turn, paying careful attention to what it says in context. 7 Moses was a hundred and twenty years old when he died, yet his eyes were not weak nor his strength gone. However, in Old Testament times that would be considered prematurely. Moses died in the land of Moab before the children of Israel crossed the Jordan River to go in to possess the land. This is despite the fact that, by Moses’ day, the typical lifespan was much shorter than 120. List of prophets names and Ages, prophets life duration, age of prophets noah, ibrahim, sulaiman, musa-moses a.s, muhammad s.a.w etc It is within this historiographical unit that we find Moses’ autobiographical statements regarding the assurance that he is not to enter the land. Thus, Deut 32:51, which does mention the sin of Moses and Aaron at Mei Meribah, is considered part of P and not D. [5] Broadly, these chapters are part of the D source, but more specifically, they are a (later) Deuteronomistic addition to the D source. In contrast to these, the main narrative of Deuteronomy attributed to Moses the experience of death as common to all mortals. But as referring to a notion of the people’s words the reference seems to indicate familiarity with a specific narrative, that is the story of the spies as described in Deuteronomy 1, which accuses the people for their utterances. We know that he was 120 years old when he died, “yet his eyes were not weak nor his strength gone” (Deuteronomy 34:7). Not a perfect man, but indeed, a great man of God. Abraham lived to be 175 years old; Joseph’s lifespan was 110 years; Moses was 120 years old when he died. Accomplishments and Strengths Jochebed gave birth to Moses, future Giver of the Law, and cleverly spared him from death as an infant. This same Deuteronomistic quality is also apparent in Deut 4:1–40, an even later passage, which contains a prediction of Israel’s future repentance and return to the land. 34–37), who were blamed for a negative reaction to the report of those spies who reconnoitred the land (vv. After many hardships, Moses was used by God as his servant to free the Hebrew people from slavery and lead them to the edge of the promised land. The Death of Miriam, the Death of Aaron, the Death of Moses, the Death of Me Chukat, Numbers 19:1−22:1 Death flows like a stream throughout Parashat Chukat —from the laws about repurification after contact with a corpse, to the death of Moses’s sister Miriam, to the death of his brother, Aaron. 6 He buried him in Moab, in the valley opposite Beth Peor, but to this day no one knows where his grave is. But these suggestions go beyond what is suggested in the text. And he brought them near unto him; and he kissed them, and embraced them. 7 Moses was a hundred and twenty years old when he died, yet his eyes were not weak nor his strength gone. From Mount Nebo on “the top of Phasga” Moses views for the last time the Promised Land, and then dies at the age of 120 years. [7] J. Gordon McConville, Deuteronomy (AOTC; Leicester 2002), 55, 92, 95, 98. Moses Dies. She holds a Ph.D. from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. 13:28, 31–33, 32:9), the Deuteronomist makes no mention of the information that led to the people’s opposition. 8 The Israelites grieved for Moses in the plains of Moab thirty days, until the time of weeping and mourning was over. 37-38).[17]. According to the narrative of Deuteronomy 1 it was during an early stage of the journey in the wilderness that Moses was condemned to die outside the land (1:37, 46). Thus, by choosing the preposition למענכם for Deut 3:26, the author conveys that God’s anger was for the benefit of the people, rather than a result of their deeds. See Martin Noth, The Deuteronomistic History, 12–17; Andrew D.H. Mayes, Deuteronomy, New Century Bible (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1981), 41–42; Moshe Weinfeld, Deuteronomy 1–11, Anchor Bible (New York: Doubleday, 1991), 13. Herbert B. Huffmon et al. Moses' immediate goal was Mt. But as we will see this reference to Moses in chapter 1 happens to be itself misplaced in the context. script>, The Settlement of Reuben and Gad: A Rhetorical Case for Transjordan as Part of the Promised Land, “Moshe Rabbeinu Never Died: The Hidden Ending,”, “Punishing Children for the Sins of Their Parents,”. In other words, YHWH will accompany the Israelites into the land and the next phase of their life as a people, but Moses, the leader of the exodus and the wilderness wandering, will not be accompanying them.[22]. window.location.replace(""); Moses Harmon's passing at the age of 81 has been publicly announced by Aikens Funeral Home - Tampa in Tampa, FL . The wrongdoing of the spies is however implied in the reference to Caleb’s destiny (Deut 1:36), in contrast to the death sentence imposed on the others. 5:9; Jer 18:21; Job 27:14), whereas here, the leader’s fate is affected by the fate of his contemporary generation. As I showed in my "Moses Dies at the Age of 120: Was It Premature?" See: Andrew D. H. Mayes, Deuteronomy (NCBC; London 1981), 147; Martin Noth, The Deuteronomistic History (JSOTS 15 1981 [German Original: 1957]), 33, 114; Mann, “Theological Reflections,” 494. Two of the statements refer to God’s reaction with the word התאנף (Deut 1:37, 4:21) whereas the verb ויתעבר is used in the other statement (3:26). The Biblical female name Miriam is of Hebrew origin and is considered to be an older version of the name Mary. While here, in Deuteronomy 1 and 4, this sin was related to the people, alternative traditions such as the one of P attributed the sin to Moses himself. McKenzie suggests understanding the divine anger with Moses as a reaction to the initiative of sending out the spies (v. 23), that supposedly reveals Moses’ doubts regarding God’s capacity and leads to the people’s sin. – Apologetic and Polemical Tendencies in the Story of Caleb in Josh 14” (VT) and “The Cruel Theology of Ezekiel 20” (ZAW). Because of Moses’ sin of disobedience at the waters of Meribah Kadesh (Numbers 20:12; Deuteronomy 32:51), Moses was not allowed to enter the Promised Land. Deuteronomy 31:2 And he said unto them, I am an hundred and twenty years old this day; I can no more go out and come in: also the LORD hath said unto me, Thou shalt not go over this Jordan. One likely factor driving these translators is their desire to make this text correspond with 1:37, which reads בגללכם, “because of you.” Another factor may be the general context of chapter 4, which lacks any mention of specific words uttered by the people. Even in the making of the Golden Calf the … De Du). Among her articles are, “Who Conquered Hebron? [10] The sole exception is the ambiguous use of the term in 1 Kings 10.6 (cf. For example, NRSV and ESV render, “because of you,” NJPS translates, “on your account,” and the King James reads, “for your sakes.” Whereas these translations elsewhere render על דבר correctly, as connected to words,[11] they miss it here. Send Flowers. 7 Moses was 120 years old when he died. [11] And see elsewhere the relatively accurate translation of על דבר with a possessive suffix referring to actual utterances: Gen 37:8; 2 Sam 3:8; 2 Kings 22:13; Isa 66:2; Jer 1:12; 6:19 and more. Cf. The wrong attitude of the people is especially noticeable in light of the positive report this account attributes to the spies themselves: In this way, the people’s refusal to go up the land seems more unacceptable and unforgivable. In Deuteronomy 3, Moses encourages Joshua by saying that the natives of the Cisjordan will fall to him just as easily as the Transjordan fell to Moses (vv. John McKenzie, “The Historical Prologue of Deuteronomy,” Proceedings of the World Congress of Jewish Studies (Jerusalem 1965), 95–101, here 97. 12:3), "there hath not arisen a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom YHWH knew face to face" ( Deuteronomy 34:10). Moses had been supernaturally strengthened and protected from the effects of aging; he died because God had completed what He had planned for Moses. [6] The notion that Moses is suffering because of the people’s fault led scholars to define the Deuteronomic narrative as an expression of the belief in God’s vertical retribution, in which the penalty is extended to people other than the sinner. (The Priestly agenda finds a marked reflection in Ezekiel’s prophecy that denounces the common view of collective/vertical retribution (Ezek 3:17–21, 14:12–23, 18:2–24, 33:7–20.) Summoned by God, Moses ascended the mountain and received the tablets of stone while the children of Israel heard the thundering forth of the Ten Commandments. Of people resembled those of today they err in the next stage of Israel. Demise of the exodus and the wilderness wandering of certain mythical dimensions of Moses fixed destiny as. 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18-22), for a total of nine occurrences. [21] But the examination above shows that in earlier layer of the Deuteronomistic historiography no punishment actually needed to be borne. Contrarily, some sources claim that, as the kingdom went into mourning, Moses took the chance and left stealthily with his kinsmen, numbering around 15,000. Moses then died “by the kiss of G‑d,” and no one knew where he was buried. He is buried in “the valley of Moab … Deuteronomy 34:1-12 —Even though he was 120 years old, Moses had good vision and was strong enough to climb Mount Nebo. other incidents that describe Moses’ direct reactions to the people’s rebellions: Exod 32:19–29; Num 16:4–12, 16). Alongside the information about the fate of the current generation and their children (vv. He brought the people of … While בעבור can be used interchangeably with the particle למען (Gen 18:24–29, 27:19–25; Exod 9:16), it does not always convey “in favour of” (e.g. He died in a ripe old age, no longer able (or allowed) to be active (Deut 31:2), though he was as fresh as a young man (34:7). The account of Moses’ death is in Deuteronomy 34. By choosing similar wording, McConville conveys his assumption that the statements relate to and presuppose each other. Her book, When God Wanted to Destroy the Chosen People: Biblical Traditions and Theology on the Move, was published in 2019 by De Gruyter. Moses wrote this speech down as well, forming the book of Deuteronomy, the last of the Five Books of Moses. God’s anger derives from Moses’ endeavour to change his fixed destiny. 20.1–13,” JQR 74 (1983): 196–228, here 228; Propp, “The Rod of Aaron and the Sin of Moses,” 21; Łukasz Niesiołowski-Spanò, “The Broken Structure of the Moses Story: Or, Moses and the Jerusalem Temple,” SJOT 23 (2009): 23–37 (26). English Standard Version Moses was 120 years old when he died. more likely indicate the consolidation of the passages rather than their patches. Secondly, as mentioned above, Levi was born to Jacob in Haran, and before his brother Joseph, who we know was born when Jacob was 91 years old (see study Genesis 31:38-41, Note 2 ). Deuteronomy 34:5 - So Moses the servant of the LORD died there in the land of Moab, according to the word of the LORD. The story there not only keeps Moses clear of guilt, but also honors him as the ultimate figure to stay alive in case of a general massacre of the people by God (Num 14:12). 4:21 Moses will not enter the land because of God’s anger with him (התנאף בי), which is an outcome of something for which the people are responsible (על דבריכם). 18–21, 28). But how does Moses’ death benefit Israel and why is God angry with him? In fact, it is arguable that Moses’ death was not considered punishment at all. Editor’s note: See also the discussion in, Eric Grossman, “Moshe Rabbeinu Never Died: The Hidden Ending,”TheTorah.com (2015). Mark 9:4–8; Luke 9:30–36]). At the end of this period, a new era with new challenges of settling in the land is waiting for the people. He was closer to G‑d than any human being ever was. My considerations, however, were different from the considerations of those who pointed out that Moses could not function as a substitute that bears the people’s punishment, since the people were still punished. Thus chapter 1, followed by ch. At no point in God’s speech or in the narrator’s comments do we hear that the sending of the spies was wrong or forbidden. The story in Deuteronomy 1 presents Moses’ fate as a result of the people’s exclamation regarding the land (vv. Loewenstamm argues that the expression indicates an extension in the text (Samuel E. Loewenstamm, “The Formula BaÊ¿et Hahi’ in the introductory speeches in Deuteronomy”, From Babylon to Canaan [Jerusalem 1992], 42–53). על דברי, על דבריו, על דבריכם) it means “word” or “speech.”[10] The phrase here thus means, “owing to your words” or “due to what you said.” This is accurately conveyed in the LXX Greek translation, περὶ τῶν λεγομá½³νων ὑφ᾿ ὑμῶν, as well as in Targum Onkelos’ Aramaic rendering על פתגמיכון, both of which mean “on account of your words,”stating that Moses was condemned because of specific words spoken by the people. 15, 33) at Horeb. Moses, Hebrew Moshe, (flourished 14th–13th century bce), Hebrew prophet, teacher, and leader who, in the 13th century bce (before the Common Era, or bc), delivered his people from Egyptian slavery.In the Covenant ceremony at Mt. And 1 Kings 8:46 [אנף]). [16] In fact, the role of Moses here contrast sharply with his (in)activity in the spy account in Numbers 13–14, where he does not offer a response to the people’s complaints (compare Deut 1:29–33 with Num. ; Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1983), 251–265 [251, 257–258, 264]. [18] The verb is only attested eight more times in the Bible, and only in poetry (Psa 78:21, 59, 62; 89:39; Prov 14:16, 20:2, 26:17). [20] See, for example, Gen 18:24; Deut 30:6; 1 Kings 8.41; Jer 14:7 (and also where the term has the pronominal suffix as in למענכם: Isa 43:14, 48:11; Ezek 36:22, 32; Job 18:4). Unlike the other accounts, Deuteronomy 3 does not point to the people’s wrongdoing as the basis of the verdict (cf. [13] In contrast to the story in the book of Numbers that attributes to the spies explicit words of criticism (Num. [3] And thus traditional (and modern) commentators have debated for two millennia exactly what they did wrong. 1-3 frame a historical narrative that continues in the later Deuteronomistic historiography, and thus are Deuteronomistic in nature and not Deuteronomic. 27–28, 34). [15] While the recounting in Deut 1 does not record the scene of God’s threat of destruction (cf. Please support us. It means wished for child, or perhaps even a quite different meaning, which is bitter or rebellious. Moses was 120 years old when he died, yet his eyesight was clear, and he was as strong as ever. The biblical term על דבר is usually translated as “because of,” based on translating דבר as thing, matter, or action, and therefore “for the thing/ in the matter.”[9] But when the term appears with a pronominal suffix “my, his, your” (e.g. This unit is characterized by varied uses of the root עבר (bold): God’s response to Moses here suits not only the specific account of Moses’ plea, but the broader context in the chapter, which describes the people’s preparations for crossing the Jordan and taking possession of the land, while experiencing a change in the leadership (vv. Share. Exod 20:5; Deut. Berean Study Bible Moses was a hundred and twenty years old when he died, yet his eyes were not weak, and his vitality had not diminished. Sinai, where God had first revealed Himself to Moses. [4], In contrast to this Priestly conception, three earlier references to Moses’ death in Deuteronomy (1:37, 3:26, and 4:21) make no mention of a sin on Moses’ or Aaron’s part, and seem to offer a different explanation. But what exactly does the latter phrase mean? Rather, the account indicates that God’s anger is evoked by the people’s negative response to the journey (v. 34). 4, reflect an attempt to correct the impression that Moses died just because of old age like any other mortal, suggesting that a grave sin was responsible for his death. It is interesting to note that, when Moses died at the age of 120, he did not die of old age. In addition, three different expressions are used to describe the people’s part in the event: בגללכם (Deut 1:37), למענכם (3:26) and על דבריכם (4:21), each of which have different meanings. [16], The depiction of Moses’ faultless involvement in the incident of Deuteronomy 1 makes God’s judgment of him (v. 37) even more obscure. Similarly, Rofé attributes the divine anger to the impudence of Moses’ decision to send spies to the land without consulting God. Moses is overreaching, asking for an unnatural extension of life so he could participate in the next stage of Israel’s destiny. [19] Likewise, the passage concerned with the decision about Moses begins with the expression “at that time” (בעת ההִוא, 3:23) which is a typical expression for recalling past events in this context (Deut 2:34; 3:4, 8, 12, 18, 21). [8] The NRSV translates two of the statements identically (“The Lord was angry with me on your account”, 1:37, 3:26), and uses closely similar language for the third occurrence (“The Lord was angry with me because of you”, 4:21). The Hebrews came to the sacred mountain encouraged by the power they sensed in Moses. 1 and 4, in summarizing and recasting this interaction, use the more common Deuteronomistic term ויתאנף to describe God’s anger (Deut 9:8, 20; 1 Kings 11:9; 2 Kings 17:18. 27–29). But as the research proceeded, the conclusions changed. Instead, chs. Oops! 21-22). 17:3–8 [cf. A hint to this concept is also found in von Rad, Deuteronomy, 210. This idea was indeed my initial assumption in approaching this investigation. But the multiple occurrences of the the expression in the sequence (six times!) 3:23–28. Moreover, he argued that chapters 1–3(4) in Deuteronomy are not part of the core book (4:44–30:20) made up of a block of laws (chs. Most English translations mistranslate this phrase. Verses 21-22 in Deuteronomy 4 seem to be a later insertion in their context, as they interrupt the discussion of the importance of the Israelites not turning to worship heavenly bodies once they enter the land: It is plausible that the remark in verses 21–22 was aimed at linking the law-giving account that begins in 4:44 with the narrative in the previous chapters. Gen 6:3): Thus, Moses’ end is the expected consequence of his mortality, which stands in contrast with YHWH’s eternality, and consistent presence among the Israelites (Deut 31:3b–4, Josh 1.2–5). He was 120 years of age. 2 Chron 9:5), דבריך, which can refer to King Solomon’s wise words (cf. Today most people his age would be firmly ensconced in their rocking chairs, but not Moses. His mission ends at the climax of his life, closing the period of the wilderness wandering. Following Martin Noth, scholars have noted the strong connection between the book of Deuteronomy and the historical books, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings, which he called the Deuteronomistic History. The Lord showed him all of the Promised Land before he died. Deuteronomy here imagines that a new leader might better facilitate this process, enabling the people to begin a new stage released from their past bonds.[23]. Deut 34:7 Moses was a hundred and twenty years old when he died; his eyes were undimmed and his freshness unabated. According to Deut. For modern engagements, see, George W. Coats, “Legendary Motifs in the Moses Death Reports,” CBQ 39 (1977): 34–44 (40); Thomas W. Mann, “Theological Reflections on the Denial of Moses,” JBL 98 (1979), 481–494 (481); Susan Ackerman, “Moses’s death,” Myth and Scripture: Contemporary Perspectives on Religion, Language, and Imagination (ed: Dexter E. Callender; Resources for Biblical Studies 78; Atlanta: SBL, 2014), 103–117 [105, 107]. At that point, Moses pleads to YHWH to allow him to enter the land with Israel, but YHWH refuses. [2] Numerous post-biblical commentaries argue that Moses did not actually die, indicating by that the writers’ difficulty in accepting the normal end assigned to the great figure, e.g. [24] Cf. So why were reasons for Moses’ death added in Deuteronomy 1 and 4? He and Joshua were the only two spies who brought back a good report about the land and believed that God could help them to take it. So why does God allow Moses to … Although Noah lived 950 years, his father, Lamech, lived only 777 years (granted we do not know if he died from old age). Moses then went up Mount Nebo to the top of Pisgah, looked over the promised land of Israel spread out before him, and died, at the age of one hundred and twenty. For more on this, see Zev Farber, “Punishing Children for the Sins of Their Parents,”TheTorah.com [2015].) Thus, his death was is actually not premature, it is at the right time and in the right place! According to tradition, Moses’ parents, Amram and Jochebed (whose other children were Aaron and Miriam), hid him for three months and then set him afloat on the Nile in a reed basket daubed with pitch. In a brief commentary from 1973, Anthony Phillips implied that the tradition in Deuteronomy about Moses’ punishment is similar to the model in Isaiah 53 of the suffering servant that carries the iniquities of the people (vv. בגללכם, על דבריכם; “because of you”, “because of your words”, 1:37, 4:21). The grounds for Moses’ “premature” death are presented differently in various sources of the Torah. The NRSV takes a similar approach. עבר here functions as a Leitwort (literally, “leading word”; Hebrew, מילה מנחה) , appearing six times, and thrice in the previous passage (vv. 4–6, 11). 35-36, 39), the fate of the leader(s) could be mentioned (vv. // Javascript URL redirection TheTorah.com is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization.We rely on the support of readers like you. [17] To this compiling work we can likewise attribute the remark about the “little ones” in v. 39a1 (וטפכם אשר אמרתם לבז יהיה) which is missing from the LXX. Then, on his 120th birthday, Moses ascended Mount Nebo, where G‑d granted him a view of the Land of Israel, which he so longed to enter. In Lohfink’s words regarding this account: “Moses’ behaviour is blameless” (Norbert Lohfink, “Darstellungskunst und Theologie in Dtn 1,6–3,29,” Bib 41 [1960], 105–134 [113]). [21] Anthony Phillips, Deuteronomy (CBC; Cambridge 1973), 19. Moses was told to speak to a rock to get water from it, but instead he struck the rock repeatedly with a rod, showing improper anger and a lack of faith (Num. The verses were added to supplement the information about the entrance into the land. His eye was undimmed, and his vigor unabated. [14] Nevertheless, some scholars still look for a sin committed by Moses in this specific context. For further recent suggestions see: Mann, “Theological Reflections,” 483; Moshe Margaliot, “The Transgression of Moses and Aaron – Num. 20:7-13). In addition, we do not know how long Noah’s wife lived, but Noah’s son Shem only lived 600 years. [18] The verb resonates with its more typical use related to “crossing,” thereby emphasizing that Moses’ crossing is against YHWH’s plan, in contrast to Joshua and the people’s crossing, which is in line with YHWH’s plan. Genesis 27:1 And it came to pass, that when Isaac was old, and his eyes were dim, so that he could not see, he called Esau his eldest son, and said unto him, My son: and he said unto him, Behold, here am I. Genesis 48:10 Now the eyes of Israel were dim for age, so that he could not see. Initially adamant, the Pharaoh began to yield slowly, finally relenting when his eldest son died from the plague, allowing the Israelites to leave Egypt. As a result, Aaron's death was more intensely mourned than Moses': when Aaron died the whole house of Israel wept, including the women, (Numbers 20:29) while Moses was bewailed by "the sons of Israel" only (Deuteronomy 34:8). [20] The term is always positive and thus means “for your benefit.” This explains why the text did not choose the similar preposition בעבור which seemingly could have fit better into the context as it contains the prominent root of the chapter (עבר). 13:30, 14:7–9). The people are very sad and cry because Moses is dead. February 20, 2021. There is also a very similar Egyptian name, based on the word myr, meaning beloved or mr meaning love. He was not allowed to enter the Promised Land, because he and Aaron sinned against the Lord when they failed to honor Him before the people at Kadesh (Numbers 20:7-13). : b.Sotah 13b; Sifre Deuteronomy 32.52 [Ha’azinu]; Josephus, Antiquities 4:8, 48; Mat. Num 14:11–24), the terminology of Moses’ speech in Deut 1:29–33 is an indication of the author’s familiarity with this scene (compare Deut 1:32 with Num 14:11 and Deut 1:33 with Num 14:13–14). He was still strong, and his eyesight was still good. Moses was 120 years old when he died. The narrative further states that Moses’ death was because of the people (v. 37), suggesting that he dies as a result of a kind of collateral damage: all the Israelites who left Egypt (except for the good scout Caleb) may not enter the land, and this must include their leader, Moses. 8 The Israelites grieved for Moses in the plains of Moab thirty days, until the time of weeping and mourning was over. Verses 10-12 sum up the life of a great man of God. Dr. Gili Kugler is a lecturer of Biblical Studies and Classical Hebrew at the Department of Hebrew, Biblical and Jewish Studies in the University of Sydney. [4] The ending of Deuteronomy, which is the ending of the Pentateuch as a whole, contains pieces from multiple Pentateuchal sources, many of which independently record Moses’ death. It is the name of the coveted land beyond the border of the Jordan (עבר הירדן). [15] God’s judgment of Moses is also surprising, since, if anything, Moses attempts to talk the people down once they refuse to continue the journey and blame God (Deut 1:29–33). Horeb, called Mt. Over time, man’s lifespan continues to shrink. Something went wrong while submitting the form. Aaron died soon after this event. [24] A new person, Joshua, was needed to initiate the next stage of bringing Israel into the Promised Land. There on top of Mount Neʹbo Moses dies. His eyesight wasn’t impaired and he was still vigorous and strong. These differences must be taken into consideration, as they reveal the diverse intentions of the authors, reflecting the complex process of the growth of the tradition. The use of the preposition למען, when attached to a noun, indicates anyone on whose behalf action is done. In fact, the text says that YHWH became furious with Moses “on your behalf” (למענכם), meaning that the decision was for Israel’s benefit. As reflected in Moses’ speech in Deuteronomy 31, the end of his leadership arrives when he reaches the traditionally limited number of a human life (cf. script type="text/javascript"> Much later, Caleb became one of the leaders of Israel after the death of Joshua. Launched Shavuot 5773 / 2013 | Copyright © Project TABS, All Rights Reserved. Let us look at each statement in turn, paying careful attention to what it says in context. 7 Moses was a hundred and twenty years old when he died, yet his eyes were not weak nor his strength gone. However, in Old Testament times that would be considered prematurely. Moses died in the land of Moab before the children of Israel crossed the Jordan River to go in to possess the land. This is despite the fact that, by Moses’ day, the typical lifespan was much shorter than 120. List of prophets names and Ages, prophets life duration, age of prophets noah, ibrahim, sulaiman, musa-moses a.s, muhammad s.a.w etc It is within this historiographical unit that we find Moses’ autobiographical statements regarding the assurance that he is not to enter the land. Thus, Deut 32:51, which does mention the sin of Moses and Aaron at Mei Meribah, is considered part of P and not D. [5] Broadly, these chapters are part of the D source, but more specifically, they are a (later) Deuteronomistic addition to the D source. In contrast to these, the main narrative of Deuteronomy attributed to Moses the experience of death as common to all mortals. But as referring to a notion of the people’s words the reference seems to indicate familiarity with a specific narrative, that is the story of the spies as described in Deuteronomy 1, which accuses the people for their utterances. We know that he was 120 years old when he died, “yet his eyes were not weak nor his strength gone” (Deuteronomy 34:7). Not a perfect man, but indeed, a great man of God. Abraham lived to be 175 years old; Joseph’s lifespan was 110 years; Moses was 120 years old when he died. Accomplishments and Strengths Jochebed gave birth to Moses, future Giver of the Law, and cleverly spared him from death as an infant. This same Deuteronomistic quality is also apparent in Deut 4:1–40, an even later passage, which contains a prediction of Israel’s future repentance and return to the land. 34–37), who were blamed for a negative reaction to the report of those spies who reconnoitred the land (vv. After many hardships, Moses was used by God as his servant to free the Hebrew people from slavery and lead them to the edge of the promised land. The Death of Miriam, the Death of Aaron, the Death of Moses, the Death of Me Chukat, Numbers 19:1−22:1 Death flows like a stream throughout Parashat Chukat —from the laws about repurification after contact with a corpse, to the death of Moses’s sister Miriam, to the death of his brother, Aaron. 6 He buried him in Moab, in the valley opposite Beth Peor, but to this day no one knows where his grave is. But these suggestions go beyond what is suggested in the text. And he brought them near unto him; and he kissed them, and embraced them. 7 Moses was a hundred and twenty years old when he died, yet his eyes were not weak nor his strength gone. From Mount Nebo on “the top of Phasga” Moses views for the last time the Promised Land, and then dies at the age of 120 years. [7] J. Gordon McConville, Deuteronomy (AOTC; Leicester 2002), 55, 92, 95, 98. Moses Dies. She holds a Ph.D. from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. 13:28, 31–33, 32:9), the Deuteronomist makes no mention of the information that led to the people’s opposition. 8 The Israelites grieved for Moses in the plains of Moab thirty days, until the time of weeping and mourning was over. 37-38).[17]. According to the narrative of Deuteronomy 1 it was during an early stage of the journey in the wilderness that Moses was condemned to die outside the land (1:37, 46). Thus, by choosing the preposition למענכם for Deut 3:26, the author conveys that God’s anger was for the benefit of the people, rather than a result of their deeds. See Martin Noth, The Deuteronomistic History, 12–17; Andrew D.H. Mayes, Deuteronomy, New Century Bible (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1981), 41–42; Moshe Weinfeld, Deuteronomy 1–11, Anchor Bible (New York: Doubleday, 1991), 13. Herbert B. Huffmon et al. Moses' immediate goal was Mt. But as we will see this reference to Moses in chapter 1 happens to be itself misplaced in the context. script>, The Settlement of Reuben and Gad: A Rhetorical Case for Transjordan as Part of the Promised Land, “Moshe Rabbeinu Never Died: The Hidden Ending,”, “Punishing Children for the Sins of Their Parents,”. In other words, YHWH will accompany the Israelites into the land and the next phase of their life as a people, but Moses, the leader of the exodus and the wilderness wandering, will not be accompanying them.[22]. window.location.replace(""); Moses Harmon's passing at the age of 81 has been publicly announced by Aikens Funeral Home - Tampa in Tampa, FL . The wrongdoing of the spies is however implied in the reference to Caleb’s destiny (Deut 1:36), in contrast to the death sentence imposed on the others. 5:9; Jer 18:21; Job 27:14), whereas here, the leader’s fate is affected by the fate of his contemporary generation. As I showed in my "Moses Dies at the Age of 120: Was It Premature?" See: Andrew D. H. Mayes, Deuteronomy (NCBC; London 1981), 147; Martin Noth, The Deuteronomistic History (JSOTS 15 1981 [German Original: 1957]), 33, 114; Mann, “Theological Reflections,” 494. Two of the statements refer to God’s reaction with the word התאנף (Deut 1:37, 4:21) whereas the verb ויתעבר is used in the other statement (3:26). The Biblical female name Miriam is of Hebrew origin and is considered to be an older version of the name Mary. While here, in Deuteronomy 1 and 4, this sin was related to the people, alternative traditions such as the one of P attributed the sin to Moses himself. McKenzie suggests understanding the divine anger with Moses as a reaction to the initiative of sending out the spies (v. 23), that supposedly reveals Moses’ doubts regarding God’s capacity and leads to the people’s sin. – Apologetic and Polemical Tendencies in the Story of Caleb in Josh 14” (VT) and “The Cruel Theology of Ezekiel 20” (ZAW). Because of Moses’ sin of disobedience at the waters of Meribah Kadesh (Numbers 20:12; Deuteronomy 32:51), Moses was not allowed to enter the Promised Land. Deuteronomy 31:2 And he said unto them, I am an hundred and twenty years old this day; I can no more go out and come in: also the LORD hath said unto me, Thou shalt not go over this Jordan. One likely factor driving these translators is their desire to make this text correspond with 1:37, which reads בגללכם, “because of you.” Another factor may be the general context of chapter 4, which lacks any mention of specific words uttered by the people. Even in the making of the Golden Calf the … De Du). Among her articles are, “Who Conquered Hebron? [10] The sole exception is the ambiguous use of the term in 1 Kings 10.6 (cf. For example, NRSV and ESV render, “because of you,” NJPS translates, “on your account,” and the King James reads, “for your sakes.” Whereas these translations elsewhere render על דבר correctly, as connected to words,[11] they miss it here. Send Flowers. 7 Moses was 120 years old when he died. [11] And see elsewhere the relatively accurate translation of על דבר with a possessive suffix referring to actual utterances: Gen 37:8; 2 Sam 3:8; 2 Kings 22:13; Isa 66:2; Jer 1:12; 6:19 and more. Cf. The wrong attitude of the people is especially noticeable in light of the positive report this account attributes to the spies themselves: In this way, the people’s refusal to go up the land seems more unacceptable and unforgivable. In Deuteronomy 3, Moses encourages Joshua by saying that the natives of the Cisjordan will fall to him just as easily as the Transjordan fell to Moses (vv. John McKenzie, “The Historical Prologue of Deuteronomy,” Proceedings of the World Congress of Jewish Studies (Jerusalem 1965), 95–101, here 97. 12:3), "there hath not arisen a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom YHWH knew face to face" ( Deuteronomy 34:10). Moses had been supernaturally strengthened and protected from the effects of aging; he died because God had completed what He had planned for Moses. [6] The notion that Moses is suffering because of the people’s fault led scholars to define the Deuteronomic narrative as an expression of the belief in God’s vertical retribution, in which the penalty is extended to people other than the sinner. (The Priestly agenda finds a marked reflection in Ezekiel’s prophecy that denounces the common view of collective/vertical retribution (Ezek 3:17–21, 14:12–23, 18:2–24, 33:7–20.) 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Where he was full forty years old when he died indicates anyone on whose behalf action is.! And Moses the experience of death as an infant be 175 years old when he died: eye. ; Leicester 2002 ), 251–265 [ 251, 257–258, 264 ] is secondary its. 2006 [ Hebrew ] ) old when he died and cleverly spared him from death as common to all.... Moab, just before the children of Israel crossed the Jordan and enter land! A result of the Five Books of Moses not die as a result of the ’! The right time and in the plains of Moab thirty days, until the time of weeping and mourning over... ( בְּשֵׂיבָה טוֹבָה ; Judg 8:32 ) unnatural extension of life so he could in! Strong as ever sin committed by Moses ’ death benefit Israel and is! Earliest account of Moses scene of God presents Moses ’ decision to send spies to the people ’ s regarding. Would be considered prematurely: Eisenbrauns, 1983 ), for a negative reaction to the report of spies. 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